By : Rosyid Bagus Ginanjar Habibi, Fiscal Policy Agency
The governments of western countries began to be moved to make the discussion of earth’s future climate change. Climate Change that the longer it can not be dammed due to displacement pattern of life in each country. Industrialization of the economy became one of the causes of climate change and this makes the special attention for western countries to call for countries around the world to reduce carbon emissions of greenhouse effect. The issue of climate change is a serious issue that is always simmering in every economic forum meeting in various countries.
Various problems related to climate change can not be avoided from the events that began to emerge globally. The greenhouse effect has resulted in melting of the polar ice caps, rising ocean temperatures, prolonged drought in some countries, the spread of dangerous disease outbreaks that occur in Africa, such as the massive flooding events in Thailand this year, coral bleaching and large storm surge as it did in the Philippines. Various events of this world that moves the world community to immediately address this issue at least prevented or reduced.
One solution, the various commitments of countries to reduce carbon emissions and grant funds for reforestation of trees in tropical countries. Commitment countries around the world is realized starting from a container called the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This Convention then get a follow-up of the amendment and called the Kyoto Protocol. Shared commitment of developed countries and developing negotiated in Japan in December 1997 it is an international agreement on global warming. Some countries in the world that have ratified this protocol committed to reduce pollution by emissions / removals of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases. Besides the participation of the countries that joined in Kyoto Protocol can cooperate with other countries in terms of emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of the gases. The hope, with this Kyoto Protocol global climate pollution will be reduced by between 0.02 ° C and 0.28 ° C in 2050. (Source: Nature, October 2003). Kyoto Protocol comes into force on February 16, 2005 after Russia ratified the agreement to participate on November 18, 2004 . Recorded until December 3 2007 , 174 countries have ratified the protocol, including Japan , India, New Zealand , China, Canada , and 25 member states of the European Union , as well as Romania and Bulgaria .
Commitment Implementation of the Green Economy
The Indonesian government’s commitment in implementing the Kyoto Protocol and even then continued with the participation of representatives of Indonesia, Rachmat Witoelar, Chairman of the Delegation of the Republic of Indonesia (Delri), the UN Framework Conference on Climate Change (UNFCCC COP 17) in Durban, South Africa. Rachmat speech at the session “High Level Segment” at the conference. Representatives of Indonesia’s hope that the conference held on November 28 – December 9, 2011 is able to accommodate the establishment of a joint commitment as a forerunner to the Kyoto Protocol of the 2nd. The issue is an issue that is exhaled Mitigation, Adaptation and transfer of technology.
As the owner of one of the tropical forest which accounts for the greening of the Earth, Indonesia has contributed naturally. But do not just stop there. Optimization principle of our foreign “free and active” push Indonesia more active role in the international arena to talk about climate change. An example is a conference recently held the International Conference on Children and Youth Tunza. Conference held in Bandung on 27 October to 1 November 2011 is the program the Ministry of Environment in collaboration with the Environment Programme of the United Nations. As Chairman of ASEAN for the year 2011, Indonesia continued to promote awareness related to the green economy and green energy is environmentally friendly in the regional environment.
Indonesia’s seriousness in managing the issue of climate change is even applied in the structure of government itself. Ministry of Finance as manager of finance and national economy has formed a new unit under the role of fiscal policy. The unit is named the Center for Climate Change Policy and Multilateral Financing. Units that are new this is the mandate of the Minister of Finance 184/PMK.01/2010 Regulation on Organization and Administration of the Ministry of Finance. The new unit’s task is to carry out policy formulation, analysis, evaluation, assessment, coordination, cooperation, funding and monitoring the financing of climate change, and economic and financial cooperation G20 and other multilateral forums, as well as the Indonesian government equity participation in international organizations.
Although the unit was still relatively new, green economy that is applied in fiscal policy can be a pioneer in regional and international levels. This is a form of awareness of our people towards environmental issues associated with financing the green economy. Not only ratify treaties between countries but more definitely stepped further in the policy application. Hopefully the green economy programs that pioneered Indonesia has contributed significantly to climate change which is increasingly critical. Indonesia steps to form new structures in the government specifically dealing with the issue of climate change may be able to inspire other countries to follow and more serious damage in the handling of this old earth. Save Our Earth.